Exams. 10.10.2012
TOEFL Cafe

TOEFL cafe: FOCUS ON READING

Автор: Таня Пекарчук

Рада вітати в TOEFL.cafe!

Оговтатались після чудових канікул? Увійшли в ритм нового семестру і призвичаїлись до нових
підручників
? Твоє «так» на попередні питання лиш підтверджує твою готовність приділити час новому «сезону» TOEFL.cafe.


READING 


Багато аспектів нашого життя у своєму особливому ритмі переходять он-лайн простір. Тому я не могла оминути увагою тему он-лайн освіти і не запропонувати вам посмакувати з кавою (а головне, покращити навички читання) уривки зі статті The Crisis in Higher Education . Читаємо, насолоджуємося, коментуємо, і намагаємося зрозуміти нові слова з контексту.

Online versions of college courses are attracting hundreds of thousands of students, millions of dollars in funding, and accolades from university administrators. Is this a fad, or is higher education about to get the overhaul it needs?

A hundred years ago, higher education seemed on the verge of a technological revolution. The spread of a powerful new communication network—the modern postal system—had made it possible for universities to distribute their lessons beyond the bounds of their campuses. Anyone with a mailbox could enroll in a class. (…)Sensing a historic opportunity to reach new students and garner new revenues, schools rushed to set up correspondence divisions. By the 1920s, postal courses had become a full-blown mania. Four times as many people were taking them as were enrolled in all the nation's colleges and universities combined.

This fall, many of the country's leading universities, including MIT, Harvard, Stanford, and Princeton, are offering free classes over the Net, and more than a million people around the world have signed up to take them. D These "massive open online courses," or MOOCs, are earning praise for bringing outstanding college teaching to multitudes of students who otherwise wouldn't have access to it, including those in remote places and those in the middle of their careers. The online classes are also being promoted as a way to bolster the quality and productivity of teaching in general—for students on campus as well as off.

The excitement over MOOCs comes at a time of growing dissatisfaction with the state of college education. The average price tag for a bachelor's degree has shot up to more than $100,000. Spending four years on campus often leaves young people or their parents weighed down with big debts, a burden not only on their personal finances but on the overall economy. And many people worry that even as the cost of higher education has risen, its quality has fallen. Dropout rates are often high, particularly at public colleges, and many graduates display little evidence that college improved their critical-thinking skills. Close to 60 percent of Americans believe that the country's colleges and universities are failing to provide students with "good value for the money they and their families spend," according to a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center. Proponents of MOOCs say the efficiency and flexibility of online instruction will offer a timely remedy.

A The advances in tutoring programs promise to help many college, high-school, and even elementary students master basic concepts. One-on-one instruction has long been known to provide substantial educational benefits, but its high cost has constrained its use, particularly in public schools. B According to one recent study of undergraduates taking statistics courses at public universities, the latest of the online tutoring systems seem to produce roughly the same results as face-to-face instruction. С The leaders of the MOOC movement acknowledge the challenges they face. Perfecting the model, says Agarwal, will require "sophisticated inventions" in many areas, from grading essays to granting credentials. E This will only get harder as the online courses expand further into the open-ended, exploratory realms of the liberal arts, where knowledge is rarely easy to codify and the success of a class can hinge on a professor's ability to guide students toward unexpected insights. The outcome of this year's crop of MOOCs should tell us a lot more about the value of the classes and the role they'll ultimately play in the educational system.

At least as daunting as the technical challenges will be the existential questions that online instruction raises for universities. Whether massive open courses live up to their hype or not, they will force college administrators and professors to reconsider many of their assumptions about the form and meaning of teaching. For better or worse, the Net's disruptive forces have arrived at the gates of academia.


Прочитали? Сподіваюсь, все було досить зрозумілим. Тепер перевіримо, чи правильно ви зрозуміли деякі слова та вирази.

VOCABULARY
 
accolade, n  /ˈækəleɪd/:  an expression of praise and admiration
She was full of accolades for his work.
 
fad, n /fæd/: something that is popular or fashionable for only a short time
Interest in organic food is not a fad, it's here to stay.

overhaul, n /ˈəʊvə(r)ˌhɔːl/: a complete change to a system that is intended to make it work more effectively
The car needs a complete overhaul.
an overhaul of the tax system

on the verge of : to be at the point where something is about to happen
Jess seemed on the verge of tears.

the Net: the Internet

shoot up to : to increase quickly by a large amount
Demand for water has shot up by 70% over the last 30 years.
 
weigh down to : to cause problems for someone or something, or to make someone worried
He felt weighed down by his responsibilities.
 
dropout, n /ˈdrɒpaʊt/:  someone who leaves school or college without finishing their course of study

timely, adj: happening at the most suitable time
The fight ended only with the timely arrival of the police.
 
to master, v: to learn something thoroughly so that you know it or can do it very well
I never quite mastered the art of walking in high heels.
 
substantial, adj /səbˈstænʃ(ə)l/ : important, or real or large in amount or degree
The document requires substantial changes.

realms of sth: /relm/: a particular area of knowledge, experience, interest etc
an idea that belongs in the realm of science fiction
 
to hinge on : to depend on something
His political future hinges on the outcome of this election.
 
daunting, adj /ˈdɔːntɪŋ/: frightening in a way that makes you feel less confident:
The trip seemed rather daunting for a young girl.
 
live up to: to be as good as what was expected or promised
The film has certainly lived up to my expectations.
 
hype, n /haɪp/: attempts to make people think something is good or important by talking about it a lot on
television, the radio etc - used to show disapproval:
Some experts are concerned that the new drug won't live up to all the hype.
 
disruptive, adj /dɪsˈrʌptɪv/: causing problems and preventing something from continuing in its usual way
Night work can be very disruptive to home life.

А тепер питання та завдання:

1. Insert the following phrase into the most suitable place, A, B, C
It's likely that if computers are used in place of teachers, many more students will be able to enjoy the benefits of tutoring.

 
2. In E and D put insert the most suitable pronoun:
1.    That
2.    This
3.    Those
4.    These




WRITING. PRONOUNS

Говоримо сьогодні про важливі дрібниці в писанині. А саме про такі на перший погляд « незначні»
речі, як займенники. Наче всі ми знаємо, що girl – то «вона», тобто, “she”, що Einstein - “he”, and a puppy is it. Але ми не про ті, ми про this, that, and it.

Почнемо з this

Now, this is what I want you to write, so listen carefully.
або ж
Listen to this! You'll like it!
 
This вказує на те, про що збираємося говорити "This is what I want you to write",
This також вказує на те, що відбувається саме зараз "Listen to this" — Послухай це (=те, що грає
саме зараз).

Як щодо it?

В розмовній мові, it зазвичай замінює той іменник (предмет), про який вже згадувалося.
We had a party on the weekend. It was great! - "it"= вечірка

'That' та 'this' позначають в цілому ситуацію/ явище/ подію, що відбувається (this) або вже відбулася (that). Уяви собі вечірку. До тебе підходить знайомий і каже: 'This is great! I wish we could have this more often!' Використання 'it' замість 'this' в такій фразі звучало б штучно, адже немає іншого іменника, до якого б стосувалося it.

Ось ще приклади:
We were at movie night last Sunday. It was great.
Second:
- We were at movie night at one nice caffee last Sunday!
- That's great! Did you enjoy it? ('that' стосується ситуації в цілому)

Коли в реченні більш ніж один об'єкт, зайва уважність не завадить, особливо, при читанні.
Поглянемо на такі приклади:
'We keep our portable grill in the spare room. It is mostly used for parties.'
- the grill використовується для вечірок. Отож, it вказує на перший об'єкт.

'We keep our portable grill in the spare room. This is mostly used for parties.'
- the spare room використовується для вечірок. Отже, this вказує на другий об'єкт.

THE FORMER & THE LATTER

Є ще пара займенників, що в мене особисто викликала confusion, а зустрічалася в академічному
письмі досить таки часто. Саме тому до вашої уваги ці два красунчика: former & latter. Вони допоможуть організувати думки та уникнути повтору слів.

Given a choice between Italian and French wine, I'd prefer the latter.
Both Williams and Andrews claim the property. The former insists that it was a gift.


Тож, якому вину я надаю перевагу, і хто вважає власність подарунком?

У реченні 'Given a choice between Italian and French wine, I'd prefer the latter,' – the latter ( читаємо /ˈlætə(r)/) вказує на останній згаданий предмет, тобто на французьке вино.

У реченні 'Both Williams ans Andrews claim the property. The former insists that it was a gift'the former вказує на першу згадану людину.

Ці два слівця легко запам'ятати: the former (починається з F) — це річ або людина, про яку згадали першою (first). Тоді як the latter (починається з L) — остання (last) згадана річ чи людина.
І ще одне, обидва займенники - 'former' та 'latter' - використовуються з артиклем "the"!

Тож, більше уваги деталям!

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