Grammar. 03.06.2010
Grammar Teacher

Real Conditionals

Автор: Grammar Teacher
“All things appear and disappear because of the concurrence of causes and conditions. Nothing ever exists entirely alone; everything is in relation to everything else.”
Buddha


Згідно теорії даосизму всі явища та речі у нашому житті взаємозалежні та „виростають одне з одного”. Так реалізується усім відома світоглядна стратегія - нічого випадкового не буває. Якщо зірки запалюються, значить це комусь потрібно, пам’ятаєте? Давні філософи стверджували, що випадковість - то неусвідомлена закономірність. Усе наше життя підпорядковується обставинам та умовам, в яких ми знаходимося, які є об’єктивними, незалежними від нашої волі.

...Якщо ціна на автомобілі буде встановлена вище від точки рівноваги, попит на них зменшиться, пропозиція перевищить попит, запас непроданих автомобілів зростатиме, що змусить виробників знизити ціни і скоротити виробництво цього товару. Це призведе до зростання попиту й ….

Закони природи, економіки безперервно втручаються у наше життя і змушують нас жити за своїм принципом. Це все одно, що грати в комп’ютерні ігри з різними рівнями. На кожному рівні живуть люди: на першому – малозабезпечені, на другому вони мають свої будинки та недорогі автомобілі, на третьому – будинки та автомобілі вже дорожчі.
Ми граємо, іноді переходимо на вищий рівень, іноді падаємо вниз, і весь час відчуваємо що ніяк не можемо виграти. Переходячи з одного соціального прошарку до іншого, ми все одно залишаємося в тій самій площині. That’s what we call objective conditions (all the things that affect the way something happens) and circumstances (facts or events that make a situation the way it is).

This time we’ll learn about the way we can talk about different conditions in English. And this way is called CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. They play an important role in English grammar and they are actually some of the most useful structures in English and are commonly included in daily conversations.

All conditional sentences contain a dependent clause and an independent clause. The dependent clause usually begins with if; it expresses a condition. The independent clause expresses a result of the condition.

 

 

IF CONDITION RESULT
IF y=10 2y=20


 The if-clause is usually first, but the order of the clauses is not really important. Thus, this variant is good as well:

 

 

 

 

RESULT IF CONDITION
2y=20 IF y=10


There are two kinds of conditional sentences: real and unreal. Real Conditional (Zero and First Conditionals) describes real-life situations. It expresses an idea which is probably true, or at least very possible.  Unreal Conditional (Second and Third Conditionals) describes unreal, imaginary situations. We use Unreal conditionals when the idea expressed in the if-clause is impossible or unlikely.  

Let us have a close look at Real Conditionals.

1. Zero Conditional (Real Present Conditional)


Look at the sentence: If it is a public holiday, the banks do not open.
Is there anything unreal about it? Of course, not. Moreover, it shows us the situation that everybody knows about.
The Zero Conditional is a structure which is used for talking about general truths, or scientific facts – things which happen under certain conditions. In structures like this, if means the same as when or every time, because we’re talking in general, not about one particular case.
E.g.: If you save up money, you’re less worried about your future.

Zero conditional is easy to form because all the verbs are in present tense.

 

 

 

IF CONDITION RESULT
  present simple present simple
If you heat ice it melts

 


NOTE! Modal verbs are also widely used in the Zero Conditional sentences.
E.g.: If you get wet, you can catch a cold.
If you work in an office, you have to wear official clothes.

We also use The Zero Conditional to talk about our habits or behavior under certain conditions. For example:
I get angry if people are late for meetings.
If I cook soup, I add different spices.

2. First Conditional (Real Future Conditional)

We are talking about the future. We are thinking about a particular condition or situation in the future, and the result of this condition. There is a real possibility that this condition will happen. For example, it is morning. You are at home. You’re planning to play tennis this afternoon. But there are some clouds in the sky. Imagine that it rains. What will you do?

 

 

 

IF CONDITION RESULT
  present simple WILL-base verb
If it rains I will stay at home


IF-CLAUSE

 

 

 

 

Notice that we are thinking about a future condition. It is not raining yet. But the sky is cloudy and you think that it could rain. We use the present simple tense to talk about the possible future condition (NOT WILL). Modal verbs, Present Continuous and Present Perfect are also possible in the if-clause.

Study these examples:
If I can finish work early, I’ll come and help you.
If
you’re going shopping, will you buy me some milk?
If he
has had enough, he’ll stop.

 


THE RESULT CLAUSE

 

 

 

We use WILL + base verb to talk about the possible future result. The important thing about the first conditional is that there is a real possibility that the condition will happen.
E.g.: If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers. (I AM STILL NOT SURE WHETHER I WILL GO TO HIS HOUSE OR NOT, BUT THERE’S A REAL POSSIBILITY).

WILL can be replaced with might, may, can, could to show that something is less certain:
If you go now, you may/might see her (It’s possible but not definite)
If I pass my exam, we can/could celebrate (We can celebrate if we want to).


We can also use other modals instead of  WILL:
You should take his advice if he gives you one.
If I have free time, I must go to see my granny.


Imperative (instruction, advice) is also widely used in the result clause.
If she comes, tell her to wait for me.  

“be going to” is used in the result clause to talk about plans and intentions.
If Helen passes all her exams, we are going to buy her a big present.
 


In the table below you can see some particular uses of Real Conditionals.

 

 

 

  Structure Usage
Zero Conditional
(Real Present Conditional)

 
IF-clause: Present Tense
Main Clause: Present Tense (Modals)
 - FACTS
If you cut your finger, you bleed.
 - GENERAL TRUTHS
If you exercise regularly, you feel better.
 - SOMEONE’S HABITS
If I order coffee, I ask for milk and sugar.
First Conditional
(Real Future Conditional )
IF-clause: Present Tense
Main Clause: will (modals, imperative, be going to) + V1
 -  PREDICTIONS
You will get good marks if you study hard.
 - OFFERS
If you ask me, I’ll wash all dishes
 - WARNINGS
If you touch that switch, you’ll hurt yourself.
 - TREATS
If you do that again, I’ll call the police
 - ADVICE
If you stop eating fat food, you’ll lose weight.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

And now as usual you have a couple of tasks:
Task 1.
Have you ever heard of Murphy´s Law? This is various sarcastical statements like ‘If many things can go wrong, they will all go wrong at the same time’. Let us see... All you need is just match the sentences in A with those in B.

A.
If you bring a solar powered calculator to a test,
If you are interested in someone,
If you think a girl is beautiful,
If your looking for more than one thing,.
If your toast falls on the floor

B.
a close friend will grab their attention.
her boyfriend will always be there to confirm it.
it´ll fall on the buttered side.
it´ll fall on the buttered side.
you'll find the most important one last
the room lights won't work.


Task 2.
How would you complete the following sentences using the same manner like in Murphy´s Law?

1)    If you go behind a girl……….
2)    If you're having difficulties choosing between potential two girls/boys……..
3)    If you say something, and stake your reputation on it…………………
4)    If a girl tells you "let's stay friends"………….
5)    If you are given a take home exam………………..


For more information about Murphy´s Law visit this page - http://www.murphys-laws.com/murphy/murphy-true.html.

 

 

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