Grammar. 13.03.2014
Grammar Teacher

Present Perfect Continuous

Автор: Grammar Teacher

В прошлый раз мы с вами обсуждали Present Perfect Simple, но у каждого simple, как мы знаем, есть continuous.

Итак – сегодня в меню Present Perfect Continuous with a straw.

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Прежде всего, слово “continuous” говорит о длительности действия, а “Present perfect” намекает на результат и unfinished time.
If we put two and two together, получим, что Present Perfect Continuous – это длительное действие с результатом, и время неоконченное.

  •  I’ve been reading an interesting book this week. (and I’m still reading)
  •  He has been standing there for two hours! (and he’s still standing)

Давайте же подробнее разберемся, как строить этот Present Perfect Continuous:
 

Have/has + been + V-ing




И как в любом другом grammar tense, тут тоже есть contractions:

  • I have been V-ing = I’ve been V-ing
  • You have been V-ing = You’ve been V-ing (they’ve, we’ve)
  • He/she/it/John has been V-ing = He’s/she’s/it’s/John’s been V-ing
  •  Has not been V-ing = hasn’t been V-ing
  •  Have not been V-ing = haven’t been V-ing


Итак, когда же мы используем Present Perfect Continuous?

Duration from the past until now
Когда действие началось в прошлом и продолжается until now. We focus on the duration (длительность) of the action.

She has been talking for more than an hour, my ears hurt!
I’ve been trying to call you all day!



He started waiting a long time ago and he’s still waiting. Maybe he will continue waiting, but we don’t know this.


CONTRAST!
When we focus on the result, not the duration, of the action, we use present perfect simple, not continuous.



В данном примере мы хотим подчеркнуть результат – the baby HAS GROWN one millimeter, that’s the result.

Recent action with a result NOW
If we don’t say the duration, (если не говорить for three weeks, since January и т.д.) we mean “recently”. Here we emphasize that the action happened in the past and it has a result NOW.

Why is the pavement wet? Because it’s been raining. – long action (raining) which is already over. But the result can be seen now – the puddles.

Have you been feeling well? – это значит что человек выглядит больным, и мы хотим поинтересоваться, а не чувствовал ли он себя плохо в последнее время? We mean recently. We have a result now – the bad appearance.

We can use the Present Perfect Continuous to emphasize that the action is temporary. Look at this example:
She’s been reading stupid novels lately. (She usually doesn’t read such books, usually she likes non-fiction, but lately she’s been reading stupid novels)

When we want to talk about a permanent situation, we can use the Present Perfect simple tense.
Jane has worked as a teacher for ten years. She is still a teacher, it’s her permanent job.

The Present Perfect Continuous focuses on the duration of an action, how long it has been happening, while the present perfect simple focuses on completion of the action – the result.

Compare:
1) I’ve painted the dining room.
2) I’ve been paining the dining room.


In the first sentence, my action is over. The dining room is now painted and ready. We have a result.
In the second sentence, the action is not over, I want to show that it’s in progress, this is a process. Probably I look like this:


By the way, we can’t use the Present Perfect continuous tense with state verbs – we need to use the Present perfect simple with state verbs.

NOT : I’ve been knowing him for ten years, but I’ve known him for ten years. Know – state verb.

Now you know about the Present Perfect Continuous tense.

You can listen to Phoibe – she will explain everything once again:

 


Don’t forget to practice over here:
1. Have or has?
2. Positive sentences
3. Negative sentences
4. Questions
5. Present perfect simple or continuous?
- http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/prepersim-preperpro/exercises
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/prepersim-preperpro/exercises?ex10
-   http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbs7.htm
6. Result or process?
7. Put the words in order to make a sentence
8. Quiz

Thanks for reading =)  Hope this article was useful!

 

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