Exams. 05.03.2012
TOEFL Cafe

Подготовка к сдаче TOEFL. Toxic English

Автор: Таня Пекарчук
***ищете общий обзор TOEFL и всех типов задач? все это в первом посте здесь!***


English is toxic. Для меня. По отношению к окружающим, то все зависит… от дозы, видимо. Не знаю.

READING

 

***общие советы, как готовиться к READING, здесь**

С тех пор, как в магазинах появились био-продукты, много разговоров ведется вокруг токсичности и химикатов. Поэтому привожу ниже статью с Chemistry by John Mc Murry and Robert C.Fay, 2004, которая познакомит вас с одной из точек зрения по токсичности. Надеюсь, статья пригодится. Ну хотя бы в подготовке к TOEFL :)

Как всегда, ниже я приведу вашему вниманию небольшой vocabulary list. И мы договоримся, что заглянете вы в него уже после полного прочтения статьи :)

 

 

 

Life is not risk-free—we all take many risks each day, often without even thinking about it. We may decide to ride a bike rather than drive, even though the likelihood per mile of being killed on a bicycle is ten times greater than in a car. We may decide to smoke cigarettes, even though smoking kills more than 400,000 people each year in the U.S.

What about risks from “chemicals”? A News reports sometimes make it seem that our food is covered with pesticides and filled with dangerous additives, that our land is polluted by toxic waste dumps, and that our medicines are unsafe. B
First, it’s important to realize that everything, including your own body, is made of chemicals. There is no such thing as a “chemical-free” food, cosmetic, cleanser, or anything else. Second, there is no meaningful distinction between a “natural” substance and a “synthetic” one; a chemical is a chemical.C Many naturally occurring substances—strychnine, for example—are extraordinarily toxic, and many synthetic substances—polyethylene, for example— are harmless.
Risk evaluation of chemicals is carried out by exposing test animals, usually mice or rats, to a chemical and then monitoring for signs of harm.

Even with a lethal dose value established in test animals, the risk of human exposure to a given substance is still hard to assess. If a substance is harmful to rats, is it necessarily harmful to humans? How can a large dose for a small animal be translated into a small dose for a large human? All substances are toxic to some organisms to some extent, and the difference between help and harm is often a matter of degree. Vitamin A, for example, is necessary for vision, yet it can cause cancer at high doses. Arsenic trioxide is the most classic of poisons, yet recent work has shown it to be effective at inducing remissions in some types of leukemia. Furthermore, how we evaluate risk is strongly influenced by familiarity. Many foods contain natural ingredients far more toxic than synthetic additives or pesticide residues, but the ingredients are ignored because the foods are familiar.

All decisions involve trade-offs. Does the benefit of a pesticide that will
increase the availability of food outweigh a possible health risk to one person in
1 million? Do the beneficial effects of a new drug outweigh a potentially dangerous side effect in a small number of users? The answers aren’t always obvious, but we should try to keep our responses on a factual level rather than an emotional one.

 

 


SOME QUESTIONS

1. Insert the following phrase into the most suitable place, A, B or C :
How bad are the risks from chemicals, and how are the risks evaluated?

 
2. Which one of the following statements is correct: 
a) One can clearly distinguish two types of substances, synthetic and natural.
b) The lethal dose for animals corresponds to a lethal dose for humans.
c) Some chemicals can be at the same time toxic and safe for humans depending on the dose.
d) Natural ingredients cannot be toxic.


 
3. Mentioning "a factual level" the author means (choose one or more from the following): 
a) logical thinking,
b) even a small percentage of side effects is an important issue if talking about drugs;
c) pesticides make food more abundant;
d) to benefit from technological progress we have to sacrifice something.

***чтобы ознакомиться с типичными заданиями, заходите сюда***
 


VOCABULARY LIST

 

 

to take a risk - to do something although you know that something unpleasant or dangerous could

 

 

happen
A good pilot never takes a risk.
 
The noun risk is never followed by an infinitive. Use the pattern the/a risk of doing something:
✗ Smokers themselves have a high risk to get cancer.
✓ Smokers themselves have a high risk of getting cancer.
✗ If you eat too much you run the risk to have serious health problems.
✓ If you eat too much you run the risk of having serious health problems.


likelihood - the chance that something might happen
The likelihood of developing cancer is increased in people who smoke.
 
pesticide, n  /ˈpestɪsaɪd/  - a chemical used for killing insects, especially those that damage crops

additive, n - a substance that is added in small amounts to something, especially food, in order to
make it last longer, look more attractive, or improve it in some way
 
dump, n - a place where large amounts of waste are taken, usually outside a town

to carry out , phrasal verb, transitive - to do a particular piece of work, research etc
An investigation is being carried out by the prison governor.

to expose someone/something to something - to fail to protect someone or something from
something harmful or dangerous
Many of the soldiers had been exposed to radiation.

lethal, adj. - very dangerous and able to kill you
lethal doses of radiation
 
to assess - to carefully consider a situation, person, or problem in order to make a judgment
Our agent will assess the value of your property.
 
to some/a certain/a limited extent - partly, but not completely
To a certain extent, I was relieved.
 
to induce - to cause something, especially a mental or physical change
Both treatments were effective in inducing remission of the disease.
 
Furthermore - used before a statement that is connected to what you have just said and adds
something to it
Mr Brown has earned the respect of farmers everywhere. Furthermore, they know they can trust him.

trade-off, n - a balance between two opposing things, that you are willing to accept in order to achieve
something
There has to be a trade-off between quality and quantity if we want to keep prices low.
 
residue, n - the part of something that remains after the rest has gone or ended
pesticide residues in food
He left the residue of his estate to a nephew.


INDEPENDENT WRITING
***общие советы по подготовке к WRITING, здесь***
Для написания финального essay надо многое. Во-первых, терпение и выдержка, ведь essay – это ваше последнее задание в тестировании. Во-вторых, идеи, но советую вам их не очень долго искать и не начинать писать философскую диссертацию. В-третьих, вдохновение, хотя, скажу вам честно, лучше его не ждать :) Лучше набить руку в связном выпечатывании (если такого слова не существует, то его следует придумать, хотя бы на период подготовки :)) своих мыслей :)

Так вот последнему, связному изложению мыслей, я берусь посвятить writing part of this post.
Поэтому вашему вниманию linking words.

LINKING WORDS

Words that indicate sequence of actions/ events/ thoughts:
  • First / firstly, second / secondly, third / thirdly etc
  • Next, adv - immediately afterwards: Next, put it in the oven for 20 minutes.
  • Lastlast (of all) - used for introducing a final remark or piece of information: Last of all, let me remind you that our next meeting will be on June 24th.
  • last but not least -  used when you mention the final person or thing in a list, in order to say that they are equally important: Last but not least, I want to thank my wife Laura for all her help during the campaign.
  •  finally
  • In additionPeople gain valuable work experience and, in addition, employers can afford to employ them.
  • moreover - used for introducing an additional and important fact that supports or emphasizes what you have just said: More and more people are opposed to the idea of increasing university fees. Moreover, there is now evidence that it discourages many students from coming to the UK.
  • furthermore - in addition to what has already been said: He is old and unpopular. Furthermore, he has at best only two years of political life ahead of him.
  • Also - in addition to something else that you have mentioned: Also, it's expensive.
  • In conclusion -  used in writing or formal speech for showing that the next thing you say will be the last thing you say: In conclusion, I would like to thank everyone who helped to make this event possible.
  • To summarise - to sum up: To summarise, in most cases the schools were achieving the standards set.

In independent writing task you are supposed to support your thoughts with arguments and examples.  Here are some phrases and words that will introduce examples in your essay.

 

  • For example

 

  • For instance = for example: You may have questions which you wish to raise. For instance, who will oversee your work and how will feedback be given?
  • such as - used for introducing more examples of the type of person or thing that you have just mentioned: The museum has paintings by such Impressionist artists as Manet and Degas.
  • Including - used to introduce something or someone that is part of a larger group or amount you have just mentioned:You'll need a variety of skills, including leadership and negotiating.
  • Namely -  used for introducing more detailed information about a subject that you are discussing: Some groups, namely students and pensioners, will benefit from the new tax.
*** Ищете слова и фразы для выражения личного мнения и conclusions? Тогда вам сюда  ***


И, конечно же, попрактиковать свои WRITING and SPEAKING навыки вы можете, отправив ваши произведения по адресу toefl.cafe@gmail.com :)  Ваше письмо не останется без внимания и комментариев :) 

Тема сегодняшнего essay:

 

 

It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in
books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience
with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source
is more important? Why?


 

 

 

посмотреть предыдущие посты здесь
 
 
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