Exams. 21.05.2015
Your IELTS

IELTS. READING. Completion Tasks

Автор: Арина Сидоркина
Друзья, с вами снова IELTS. И мы продолжаем учиться читать. А точнее – разбирать Reading Part письменного теста IELTS.
Позвольте мне напомнить, какие виды заданий могут встретиться вам в этом блоке:
Multiple Choice
Short Answer
Sentence Completion
Chart, Diagram, Table
Summery Completion
Paragraph Heading
Locating Information
Writer’s view or Claims
Classification
Matching

О тонкостях и премудростях таких заданий, как Multiple Choice и Short Answer можно почитать вот здесь.
А сейчас – рассмотрим следующие виды вопросов.
COMPLETION TASKS
В эту группу заданий входят такие задания, в которых вы должны вписать недостающую информацию. Например, заполнить пропуски в предложении, таблицу и т.п. Сюда относятся такие виды заданий:
Note Completion
Sentence Completion
Flow-chart Completion
Table Completion
Summary Completion


Есть несколько общих советов для таких заданий.
1) read the question
Be very careful to read the question carefully as the examiners use different words sometimes. Look at these examples:
    Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
    Complete the table below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
    Answer the question below using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
In each case you need to do something different.
    This a text completion task and you can use 1,2 or 3 words from the passage for your answer
    This is also a text completion task, but this time you can only use 1 0r 2 words from the passage
    This is not a text completion task. The words you use do not need to come from the passage
Tip: remember in this task you need to use words from the passage. You cannot change the form or order of  those words. You must write them down as they appear in the passage.

2)  a test of grammar
The words you use to complete the text must fit grammatically. Look at this simple example:
Passage
    Traditionally, it was always supposed that it was the Egyptians who first domesticated the cat. The primary evidence for this are the depictions of cats in paintings and statuary in Egypt from over 3,500 years ago and it is indeed the case that the ancient Egyptians had an extraordinarily close relationship with cats.  One of the major deities in the New Kingdom, Bast, was a cat-goddess that symbolised fertility and motherhood and the Greek historian Herodotus tells how cats were often mummified and given a funeral, sometimes with the mummified remains of mice so that they could enjoy the afterlife
    This traditional view has been overturned, however, by the discovery in 2004 of a grave in Cyprus that was 9,500 years old in which the remains of a cat were found next to a human.  Clearly, the human association with cats predates the ancient Egyptians by many millennia. It is now thought that it was in the Fertile Crescent, modern-day Iraq, that humans first domesticated the cat. Agriculture was invented in this region and the likelihood is that cats were used to control the rodents and other vermin that fed on the crops and raided the grain stores.

Questions
    The (1)________________ were the first people to have the cat as a pet. We know this from (2)______________________ created over millennia ago and it is thought that cats (3)_________________ so that they could enjoy eternal life. There is, however, some doubt about this (4)__________________ theory because the remains of a cat were found buried with human remains in (5)____________.
Even before you read, you should be able to predict
    must be a noun after “The”
    likely to be a noun after “from”
    must be a verb form
    must be an adjective between “this” and “theory”
    either a place or a time after “in”
Tip: Even if you can’t predict the correct word form before you read, you must check afterwards that what you have written is good grammar.

3)  recognise synonyms
Another major problem is that the words used in the text you have to complete will not exactly match the words from the passage. This means that you need to read for meaning and simply look for the same words in the passage. So there is no point looking for the word “pet” as the word in the passage is “domesticated”.
A suggested technique
    Read the instructions very carefully: check how many words you can use
    Read the summary/table/sentences to see what general information you are looking for. Ignore any specific words, think about meaning
    Skim the text quickly to find the paragraphs you need to read more carefully. It’s a good idea to concentrate the first and last question as they will tell you how much of the text you need to read.
    Look back at each question one by one and look for what specific information you need. If you can, try and decide if you are looking for nouns, prepositions, verbs or adjectives
    Find the sentence in the passage that you think most clearly matches the question
    Check carefully that what you have written fits grammatically and makes sense too.
    Spell the words correctly!

Посмотрите следующее видео, в котором рассказывается, как выполнять такие задания и на что обращать внимание.
 


А теперь подробнее о каждом из этих заданий.
Sentence Completion
In this type of question, you have to fill in a gap in each sentence by choosing words from the text. You must write the words you choose on the answer sheet.
What's involved? You should read the instructions very carefully as the number of words or numbers you may use to fill the gaps can change. A word limit is given, for example, ‘NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER’. You will lose the mark for writing more than the word limit. Contracted words such as ‘they’re’ will not be tested. Hyphenated words such as ‘check-in’ count as single words. The questions are in the same order as the information in the text.
What skills are tested? This type of question tests your ability to find detail/specific information in a text.
 
Sample
Firstly, see if you can find the sentence below in the reading. You will need to find paraphrases / synomyms of the words in bold in order to identify it:
 Britain decided to send people to live and govern Australia due to _________________ factors.
You should have identified it as this first sentence in paragraph 2:
 A number of reasons contributed to Britain's decision to colonise Australia.
And these were the paraphrases / synomyms:
    reasons = factors
    Colonise = send people to live and govern

So you should then be able to work out that the correct answer to put in the gap is "a number of".
Теперь выполним задание.
Now, using this technique and the tips at the top, read the full passage and do the IELTS sentence completion exercise below (the reading is shorter than a real IELTS reading).

European Settlement of Australia
European settlement of Australia began in 1788 when a British penal colony was established on the east coast. From this starting point Australia grew rapidly and continually, expanding across the entire continent.
A number of reasons contributed to Britain's decision to colonise Australia. The most important factor was Britain's need to relieve its overcrowded prisons. Several violent incidents at overcrowded prisons convinced the British government of the need to separate unruly elements from the rest of the prison populace.
Additionally, Australia was of strategic importance to Britain, and it provided a base for the Royal Navy in the eastern sea. Also, Australia could be used as an entry point to the economic opportunities of the surrounding region. All these points figured in the decision by Lord Sydney, secretary of state of home affairs, to authorise the colonisation.
To this affect, on May 13, 1787, Captain Arthur Phillip, commanding eleven ships full of convicts, left Britain for Australia. He successfully landed a full fleet at Botany Bay on January 18, 1788. However, they left the bay eight days later because of its openness and poor soil, and settled instead at Port Jackson, a few kilometres north. The ships landed 1,373 people, including 732 convicts, and the settlement became Sydney. Australia Day is now celebrated on 26 January each year, to commemorate this first fleet landing.
224 words

Complete the following statements using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
(put your choice into the gaps - use small letters and don't put any spaces after your last word)
    1. Australia was originally founded as _______________ .
    2. The major consideration in colonizing Australia was Britain’s _______________.
    3. It was thought that Australia could be utilised as_______________  to the neigbouring region.
    4. Lord Sydney took every factor into account when he gave official permission for _______________  of Australia.
    5. Botany Bay was abandoned by the settlers due to the lack of cover and _______________.

These are the paraphrases and synomyms that you would have needed to identify in order to successfully find the answers:
Original word from the reading  -  Synomym / paraphrase from the question

Question 1     began   -  founded
Question 2     most important factor  -   major consideration
Question 3     used  -   utilized    
                         surrounding  -   neighbouring
Question 4     all these points figured  -   took every factor into account
                         authorise   -  official permission
Question 5     left   -  abandoned
                        openess  -   lack of cover
 
Summary/note/table/flow chart completion
In this type of question, you are given a summary of a part of the text, and have to complete it using words taken from the text. Note that the summary is not normally of the whole text. The summary may be in the form of:
    a continuous text (called ‘a summary’ in the instructions)
    several notes (called ‘notes’ in the instructions)
    a table with some parts of it left empty or partially empty (called ‘a table’ in the instructions)
    a series of boxes or steps linked by arrows to show the order of events, with some of the boxes or steps empty or partially empty (called ‘a flow chart’ in the instructions).
The answers may not come in the same order as in the text. However, they will usually come from one part of the text rather than the whole text.

What's involved? There are two variations of this task type. In the first variation, you need to select words from the text which fit into gaps on the question paper. You must write the words you choose on the answer sheet. You should read the instructions very carefully as the number of words or numbers you may use to fill the gaps can change. A word limit is given, for example, ‘NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER’. You will lose the mark for writing more than the word limit. Contracted words such as ‘they’re’ will not be tested. Hyphenated words such as ‘check-in’ count as single words.
In the second variation, you have to choose from a list of words to fill the gaps. The words are identified by letters (A, B, C, etc.).
You must write the letter you choose on the answer sheet.

What skills are tested? This type of question tests your ability to understand details and/or the main ideas of a part of the text. When completing this type of question, you will need to think about the type of word(s) that will fit into a gap (for example, whether a noun is needed, or a verb, etc.).
 
Sample
Air Rage
The first recorded case of an airline passenger turning seriously violent during a flight, a phenomenon now widely known as “air rage”, happened in 1947 on a flight from Havana to Miami. A drunk man assaulted another passenger and bit a flight attendant. However, the man escaped punishment because it was not then clear under whose legal control a crime committed on plane was, the country where the plane was registered or the country where the crime was committed. In 1963, at the Tokyo convention, it was decided that the laws of the country where the plane is registered take precedence.
The frequency of air rage has expanded out of proportion to the growth of air travel. Until recently few statistic were gathered about air rage, but those that have been indicate that passengers are increasingly likely to cause trouble or engage in violent acts. For example, in 1998 there were 266 air rage incidents out of approximately four million passengers, a 400% increase from 1995. In the same period American Airlines showed a 200% rise. Air travel is predicted to rise by 5% internationally by 2010 leading to increased airport congestion. This, coupled with the flying public’s increased aggression, means that air rage may become a major issue in coming years.
Aside from discomfort and disruption, air rage poses some very real dangers to flying. The most extreme of these is when out of control passengers enter the cockpit. This has actually happened on a number of occasions, the worst of which have resulted in the death and injury of pilots or the intruder taking control of the plane, almost resulting in crashes. In addition, berserk passengers sometimes attempt to open the emergency doors while in flight, putting the whole aircraft in danger. These are extreme examples and cases of air rage more commonly result in physical assaults on fellow passengers and crew such as throwing objects, punching, stabbing or scalding with hot coffee.

Look at the words in the table and decide which word will fit in the reading gap fill summary. Type the word into the gap (when you have completed it you can click below to reveal and check your answers).
predicted     rose     incident     passenger     found     assault
established     occurring     hoped     increased     injury     passengers
Summary
The first time that an (1) ________________ of air rage was recorded was in the 1940’s, but the passenger was never actually charged for an offence because there were no clear rules in place to specify where to prosecute. It was later (2) ________________  that it would be the country where the plane is registered. Air rage has (3) ________________  significantly since this time, growing by a staggering 400% from 1995 to 1998. Air rage is (4) ________________  to be a major problem in the future as air travel increases, as do levels of aggression. Angry (5) ________________  can put everyone in danger including the pilots, the crew and the other passengers, with some form of (6) ________________  being the most common consequence.
 
Diagram label completion
In this type of question, you have to complete the labels on a diagram. The diagram is based on a description given in the text. The diagram may be a type of machine, part of a building or of other information in the text that can be shown through pictures. Write the words that fit into the gap on the answer sheet.
What's involved? You should read the instructions very carefully as the number of words or numbers you may use to fill the gaps can change. A word limit is given, for example, ‘NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER’. You will lose the mark for writing more than the word limit. Contracted words such as ‘they’re’ will not be tested. Hyphenated words such as ‘check-in’ count as single words.
The answers may not come in the same order as in the text. However, they will usually come from one part of the text rather than the whole text.

What skills are tested? This type of question tests your ability to understand a detailed description in the text, and then relate that description to information given in a diagram.
 
Sample
Questions 6 – 8
Label the tunnels on the diagram below using words from the box.
Write your answers in boxes 6-8on your answer sheet.

As you can see, the pink circles show the key words that I target for scanning. Straight away I start with the numbers on the left side because numbers are the easiest and quickest to scan for. And straight away, I find numbers in the second paragraph, which I’ll underline in yellow. This is where I’ll start to read more intensely to find the missing labels:
Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes.  Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats, which are hollowed out from within.  Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat.  These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels.  The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat.  Some surface-dwelling beetles, including a South African species, cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat, which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants.

Since I saw “30 cm below the dung pat” first when I scanned the text, I’ll read that more intensely since it correlates to question #7 on the diagram (the lowest tunnel that’s closest to the 30 mark on the diagram). As I also know from skimming the question that my possible answers in the box are names of country origin for these dung beetles, I keep that in mind too as I read. See what I’ve underlined here:
Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes.  Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats, which are hollowed out from within.  Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat.  These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels.  The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat.  Some surface-dwelling beetles, including a South African species, cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat, which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants.

I’ve marked “France” and then look at the box of choices given under the diagram and I see “French” is a choice. Therefore, my answer for Question 7 is “FRENCH”.
Now I move to where I scanned “20 cm”, which correlates to Question 6, and has the tunnels closest to the 20 mark. Reading intensely, here is what I find:
Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes.  Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats, which are hollowed out from within.  Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat.  These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels.  The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat.  Some surface-dwelling beetles, including a South African species, cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat, which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants.

I can see that South African is an option. I also notice that South African ball roller is also a choice, so I read the next sentence just to be sure. This sentence that follows talks about species that are shaped into balls, but they are attached to the bases of plants, so I’m confident the answer for Question 6 is “SOUTH AFRICAN“.
And finally, I look for an answer to Question 8. I don’t see “10 cm” mentioned anywhere in that paragraph, but I can guess it is one that is the shortest or shallowest or closest to the surface or something similar to that. I read carefully and here is what I find:
Dung beetles work from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes.  Most species burrow into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats, which are hollowed out from within.  Some large species originating from France excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 30 cm below the dung pat.  These beetles make sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels.  The shallowest tunnels belong to a much smaller Spanish species that buries dung in chambers that hang like fruit from the branches of a pear tree. South African beetles dig narrow tunnels of approximately 20 cm below the surface of the pat.  Some surface-dwelling beetles, including a South African species, cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat, which are rolled away and attached to the bases of plants.

As you can see here, “the shallowest” is used, so vocabulary is important here – you need to know or be able to guess (based in context) that “shallow” means not very deep and therefore closest to the surface, which is a safe guess for tunnels of 10 cm below the surface. If I wasn’t sure of  the meaning for “shallowest”, I would look at the choices I have left in the answer box. There is no mention of Mediterranean or Australian Native . We’ve already seen where South African ball rollers are, so therefore I can confidently choose” SPANISH” for Question 8.

NOTE – To read and answer as efficiently as possible:
    As you can see I didn’t answer the questions in order. I attacked the easiest one first, which was Question 7 which was straightforward in stating dung beetles from France burrow tunnels to 30 cm. Then I worked my way to the hardest.
    For this set of questions, I didn’t read the other paragraphs in the passage - I only focused on the 3 – 4 sentences that had the key words I needed from the diagram.

Читайте, изучайте, мотайте на ус! И заполняйте пробелы. Все. В таблицах, предложениях, в знаниях, в отношениях, в жизни.

 
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