Багатофункціональність (універсальність) – чудова властивість, коли мова йде про знання, програмне забезпечення, пристрої, технології тощо. Можна пояснити її наявність у мові жестів – врешті-решт це пов`язано з відмінностями культур, в яких вони функціонують. Так, удар по долоні партнера в момент або після вимовляння фрази «говорить» єгиптянинові або сірійцеві про те, що співбесідникові сподобався сказаний жарт, гостра фраза, а європеєць той же рух рук сприйме як прояв неповаги. Але якою нестерпною стає ця multifunctionality, коли мова заходить про іноземну мову. Ось ти сидиш, намагаючись вже півгодини перекласти це чортове речення, а серед десятка запропонованих словником значень одного і того ж слова, здається, немає жодного, що могло б підійти. А далі потік демотивуючих думок типу «Я ніколи не вивчу цю мову».
One of such frustrating words is the verb GET. It is one of the 100 commonest words in the English language, and one of the top 20 verbs. It has very diverse meanings, and is used in a variety of ways. Specialists will say that it is not usually good form to use get in writing, but it’s so useful that it is difficult to avoid.
GET is used as a verb by itself with various meanings. One of the most difficult areas of usage is how "get" combines with prepositions to form phrasal verbs. Add to these problems the variations in colloquial usage and you have got ;-) a recipe for confusion!
For example, do you know what it means to get over someone? After you and your partner separate (break up) it takes you a while to feel ok and not to love them as much as you did...when you no longer have strong feelings for them, you get over them.
What about get off the bus? Or get on the bus? When you exit something that is very large...like a bus or a plane, you get off it. When you enter something large you get on it.
I’ve been thinking how to classify all the usages of the verb “GET” and I’ve decided to combine them in 2 groups – grammatical usage and lexical usage. Hopefully you will get it (= understand the proper usage) after you have finished.
Lexical usage of the verb “TO GET”
1. GET + noun/pronoun
When get is followed by a noun or pronoun, it usually means to obtain, to receive, to buy:
I got (=received) a postcard from Darren yesterday.
They got (=obtained) permission to live in Switzerland.
She got (=bought) a new coat from Zappaloni in Rome.
It can also be used instead of to earn:
I get (=earn) $7 an hour.
In the next example we can also use it in the sense of to catch (an illness, a bus, a criminal):
Wrap up warmly so you don’t get (=catch) a cold.
I got (=caught) the 4.55 train to New York.
The police got (=caught) him in the end.
Want to ask somebody to bring or fetch you something? Go ahead, use GET:
Can you get (=bring) that book for me?
Shannon went upstairs to get (=fetch) some blankets.
Actually this list seems to be endless. You can get somebody by phone (=communicate with them) as well as you may get this lesson (=understand it) or some film or book can get you (=have a strong effect on you, impress you very much).
2. GET + adjective
When get is followed by an adjective, it usually means become, but most people will use GET…
I can’t climb those stairs so quickly these days – I must be getting (=becoming) old.
Turn that radiator on so you can get (= become) warm.
I'm getting (=becoming) tired of all this nonsense.
In this sense GET shows the change in state. He got really angry when his boss fired him means he started off not so angry and became steadily more so.
3. GET + past participle
Get is often used for expressions where other European languages use reflexive verbs (зворотні дієслова: одягтися, одружитись…). We use this to talk about something we do to ourselves:
get dressed get married
get divorced get confused
get lost get engaged
4. GET + place expression
In this case GET means to reach, arrive at a place:
We got to (=arrived in) London around 6 p.m.
What time will we get (=arrive) there?
5. GET + preposition
When GET is followed by a preposition it forms various phrasal verbs and usually implies some kind of change or movement. Here are some of the most common ones:
To get away = to escape
The thief got away from the police.
To get by = to survive financially
Sally gets by on just $1,000 a month.
To get on with = to have a good relationship with
I really get on well with Janet.
To get out = to leave
I got out of class at 3.30.
To get over = to recover from an illness or bad occurrence
He got over his operation very quickly.
To get through = to succeed in an examination, test etc.
That was a difficult test to get through, wasn't it?
6. Other usages
To get down to business = to begin working
Tom arrived at 12 and immediately got down to business.
To get together = to meet
Let's get together this weekend.
GET + -ing usually has the meaning to start doing something:
You should get going otherwise you’ll miss your train. (= you should leave now).
I guess, you understand that lexical features of the verb “TO GET” are inexhaustible, and it’s not possible to cover them in one article. So let’s move to its grammatical features.
Grammatical usage of the verb “TO GET”
1. The verb GET is sometimes used instead of BE in forming the Passive Voice:
2. "get used to" indicates that you have adapted or become accustomed to something you may or may not like. At first you don't like something, then you "get used to it." It becomes a part of your life.
3. In spoken English we can use have got to (GOTTA) instead of To have to when talking about some external obligation.
4. The structure GET + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE can be used in 2 cases:
a) it can mean to finish doing something…
b) it can be used to talk about arranging for something to be done by somebody else.
5. The construction “to get somebody to do something” usually means "to convince somebody to do something" or "to trick someone into doing something."
This list doesn’t cover every use of get, but it’s enough to get you started. If you get stuck you could always get yourself a dictionary. Don’t get frustrated if you find it difficult to understand all the uses of get. It gets easier as you get used to the language. So, why don’t you get on with it? And why don’t you try right now? It won’t take you long to get the next quiz finished, will it? Waiting for your answers!
Did you get last week's lesson? Meaning =____________________
Can we _____________ please? (= begin working)
I really ___________ (=must) finish my work this afternoon.
Was it difficult to ___________ (=to recover from) his death?
How much do you need to ___________ (=survive financially) in New York?
I celebrated as soon as I ______________ (=finish successfully) the final examination.
Did you get some flour when you went to the supermarket? Meaning =___________________
Don't touch the stove until it gets cool. Meaning =________________
I can’t __________________________ (convince my husband to agree) on the colour of the carpet.