Если процесс подготовки к тесту IELTS у вас в самом разгаре, то нет нужды объяснять вам структуру самого экзамена, и особенности Reading Part этого теста в частности. Если же вы только сели разбираться что да как – то вот здесь (greenforest.com.ua/journal/read/ielts-introduction) можно почитать про сам экзамен, а вот здесь (greenforest.com.ua/journal/read/ielts-reading-2) именно про задания на чтение.
Среди различных типов заданий к тексту, вам может попасться Paragraph Heading.
In this type of question, there is a list of headings which are identified by Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc.). A heading summarises the main idea of a paragraph or section of the text. You must match the heading to the correct paragraph or section. The paragraphs (or sections) are identified by letters (A, B, C, etc.).
You will need to write the correct Roman numerals in the boxes on your answer sheet. There will always be more headings than paragraphs or sections, so some headings will not be used. It is also possible that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. One or more paragraphs or sections may already be matched with a heading as an example on the question paper. No heading may be used more than once.
What skills are tested?
This type of question tests your ability to identify the general topic of a paragraph (or section) and to recognize the difference between the main idea and a supporting idea.
Итак, перед вами текст, и в задании сказано подобрать заголовок для каждого абзаца текста. С чего начать? Сначала читать весь текст, или по абзацам? Читать вдумчиво, или бегло? Где сэкономить время, а где – не стоит?
Сориентироваться вам поможет вот такая пошаговая инструкция:
1. Look at the headings first. Don’t spend too much time on this, as at least some of them will be wrong. Try and identify what the more important words are. By looking at the headings first, you get a good idea of the general meaning of the text. That will help your reading.
2. Look at the first paragraph. Try to ignore the detail and look for the main point – these are normally found in the first few lines – that may be the topic of the paragraph. Does it match any of the headings? Don’t forget to check final sentences too – that may be a summary of the paragraph.
3. Try all the headings for each paragraph. Lots of mistakes happen because you try and work too quickly.
4. If you are unsure and it could be heading a) or b) – write down a) or b). Don’t guess yet. Come back at the end.
5. Make sure you underline/circle the words in the text that best match the heading. If you do this, you can easily check your answer, if you want to use the same heading for another paragraph later on.
6. Move onto the next paragraph and repeat the process. Don’t expect to complete all the paragraphs first time around.
7. Go back at the end and make a decision about the paragraphs you didn’t do first time. Try and be as careful as possible. Don’t rush.
8. If you are uncertain, it sometimes makes sense to use the same heading for 2 paragraphs. You will get one wrong and one right. If you guess, you may get two wrong (or two right!)
Выполняя это задание, вы также можете столкнуться с некоторыми спорными моментами и трудностями.
Хорошие рекомендации даны в следующих видео:
Видео про Matching Tasks в целом
И про Paragraph Heading в частности
Let look at an example question. Below are two paragraphs from an article called ‘Trees in Trouble- What is causing the decline of the World’s giant forests?’
Match the two paragraphs with one of the following three headings:
1. How wildlife benefits from big tress
2. Factors that enable trees to grow to significant heights
3. How other plants can cause harm
Paragraph 1 - Big trees are incredibly important ecologically. For a start, they sustain countless other species. They provide shelter for many animals, and their trunks and branches can become gardens, hung with green ferns, orchids and bromeliads, coated with mosses and draped with vines. With their tall canopies basking in the sun, they capture vast amounts of energy. This allows them to sustain much of the animal life in the forest.
Paragraph 2 - Only a small number of tree species have the genetic capacity to grow really big. The mightiest are native to Norther America, but big trees grow all over the globe, from the tropics to the boreal forests of the high latitudes. To achieve giant stature, a tree needs three things: the right place to establish its seedling, good growing conditions and lots of time with low adult mortality. Disrupt any of these, and you can lost your biggest trees.
If you look at the above paragraphs you will see that they are full of difficult words like ‘bromeliads’, ‘basking’ and ‘stature’. If you try to read and understand every word you will get nowhere.
Instead we just look at the first and the last sentences and with some highlighting of keywords and an awareness of synonyms it is apparent that the answers are:
Paragraph 1 - How wildlife benefits from big tress
Paragraph 2 - Factors that enable tree to grow to significant heights